To support rigorous research, GATE offers annual research grants to qualified applicants.

Since its launch in 2016, GATE has funded 61 researchers investigating topics such as the impact of CEO characteristics on the corporate gender gap, barriers to reporting sexual harassment and assault, increasing the number of girls and women pursuing STEM careers, and the double-bind that women face in entering the job market and advancing in their careers.

2020-2021 Grant Recipients

Laura Doering
Laura Doering
Strategy

Gendered Financial Inclusion: A Mixed-Method Study of Financial Education in Colombia

Female entrepreneurs often have less access to financial tools and capital than their male counterparts. These gendered disparities are pronounced among low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. Researchers suggest that part of this “financial inclusion gap” stems from women’s reduced knowledge about financial products. Yet interventions to promote financial education have produced mixed results, with many efforts having no effect on reducing the gap. In this study, we propose that gendered interaction patterns in educational settings may influence how women and men engage with and apply financial knowledge. Through a partnership with the Colombian government, we will investigate whether interaction patterns among participants and facilitators in a large-scale financial education program affect financial access and activity. We will collect field experimental and qualitative data to examine whether female entrepreneurs learn more or engage more effectively with financial tools when they receive financial education via different interaction channels.

Camille Hebert
Camille Hebert
Finance

Gender Stereotypes and Entrepreneur Financing

In this project, gender differences will be examined in external equity financing using administrative data on the population of start-ups in France. Female-founded start-ups are 27% less likely to raise external equity including venture capital. However, the gender funding gap reverses in female-dominated sectors, where female entrepreneurs are more likely to raise funding than male entrepreneurs. These observed gender funding gaps are not driven by the composition of founding teams or by differences across individuals regarding education, experience, ex-ante motivations or optimism. Moreover, this project shows that it is conditional on being backed with equity, entrepreneurs outperform in gender-incongruent sectors, suggesting that requirements for funding are higher for entrepreneurs that are minority in gender-incongruent sectors. The evidence is consistent with the existence of context-dependent stereotypes among investors. These findings suggest that equity investors could generate higher returns by investing in minority investors in gender-incongruent sectors - female entrepreneurs in male-dominated sectors and male entrepreneurs in female-dominated sectors.

Rie Kijima
Rie Kijima
Global Affairs

STEM Aspirations and Pathways for Girls in Japan

Countries around the world have struggled to implement education policies to encourage more female students to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). This has resulted in a persistent and sizeable gender gap in academic subjects such as secondary-level mathematics in countries like Japan. This study evaluates the influences of a design thinking workshop with an aim to increase students’ self-efficacy and motivation to pursue STEM. This study seeks to understand how this innovative educational intervention altered the Japanese middle and high school female students’ aspirations and goals related to STEM.

Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Industrial Relations and Human Resources

An Exploration of the Factors Affecting Gender Earnings Gaps in the Absence of Wage Discrimination

Countless studies document a gender earnings gap in labour markets and organizations, but few studies are able to tease apart the factors that lead to the gap. The project explores these factors among a group of emergency department physicians – an interesting setting because many factors proposed to lead to earnings gaps are held constant, such as education, occupation, and the hourly wage rate. While some shifts do receive a premium (e.g., night shifts, on-call), because shifts are equitably assigned, the only factor that could contribute to a gender earnings gap in shift-based compensation is gendered sorting across shifts. Using detailed compensation data, the investigators explore whether shift premiums and shift trading lead to a gender earnings gap in this setting. Findings will be instructive for understanding if the design of compensation systems affects gender earnings gaps in the absence of wage discrimination.

Ryann Manning
Ryann Manning
OBHRM

Trust and Inclusion in Organizational Life

This in-depth, qualitative field study examines a mission-driven service provider. The company’s workforce is substantially more racially and ethnically diverse than their competitors, and their service delivery leadership team is predominantly female, with many of them women of colour. This project will examine the company’s efforts to build an inclusive organization centred on trust and respect, and how those efforts intersect with their innovative service delivery model and approach to their clients.

Radhakrishnan_Frederickson_Toh_Kirby
Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, Megan Frederickson, Soo Min Toh, & Kate Kirby
Management, UTSC, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, IMI, & Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

The Intersectional Effects of Gender and Race on Professor Pay

Institutional efforts toward pay equity have thus far only focused on how to address gender inequities in pay. This project examines how the intersection of race and gender can also result in pay gaps. An inter-disciplinary research team of faculty from management and computational biology will examine this question by adding performance metrics relevant to the academic context to our model of pay. They will examine how professors’ research productivity and students’ evaluations of their teaching affect their pay while controlling for seniority. This project will extend previous research examining the role of teaching and research performance metrics in predicting pay (Lee & Won, 2014) and the role of gender and race in predicting teaching evaluations (Fan et al, 2019), to test a comprehensive model of how race, gender, seniority, teaching evaluations and research productivity predict pay.

Patrick Rooney
Patrick Rooney
PhD, Strategy

The Cases for Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives

Historically, managers have justified diversity and inclusion initiatives by noting that they tend to have a beneficial impact on the firm’s bottom line. This “business case” for diversity in organizations aligns with Institute for Gender and the Economy Annual Report 2019-2020 7 dominant shareholder maximization narratives, but recent research has suggested that this profit-driven focus may distract from considering a broader set of impacts. This project will investigate whether the “cases” that CEOs make for diversity and inclusion initiatives impact the degree to which their managers support these initiatives. Using a survey experiment to examine the impact of “business”, “moral”, “legal”, and other cases, the researchers hope to provide nuanced evidence that informs organizations looking to encourage and sustain diverse and inclusive working environments for the long haul.

2019-2020 Grant Recipients

Daphne Baldassari
Daphné Baldassari
PhD, Strategy

Strength in numbers: How gender group composition influences knowledge contribution

Cultural beliefs about gender affect how individuals behave within organizations, and more specifically how they contribute knowledge and ideas to their team. Organizations in male-typed industries have been actively engaging in initiatives to mitigate the pervasive influence of gender beliefs, yet with mixed success. Using a behavioral approach, the project’s purpose is to consider how gender group composition may help reduce gender beliefs’ impact on the willingness to contribute ideas and thus improve knowledge accumulation in teams.

Spike Lee, Yang Xu
Spike Lee & Yang Xu
Marketing & Computer Science

Effects of Media Outlet on Gender and Social Biases in Artificial Intelligence

We will train machine-learning models on diverse corpora to address four open empirical questions: (1) Do politically left- vs. right-leaning media lead to different kinds of social biases such as sexism, racism, and ageism? (2) Do politically more extreme (either left or right) vs. more moderate media lead to different degrees of social biases? (3) How robust are these biases across algorithm sophistication—or how minimal can the algorithms be while still exhibiting the biases? (4) Do these biases predict judgments and decisions in political and business contexts?

Shannon Liu, Hugh Wu
Shannon Liu & Hugh Wu
Strategy

Gender Differences in Response to Competition in the Workplace: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Throughout the world, in business as well as in government, men are strongly overrepresented in top positions. One explanation is that men are mo