To support rigorous research, GATE offers annual research grants to qualified applicants.

Since its launch in 2016, GATE has funded 61 researchers investigating topics such as the impact of CEO characteristics on the corporate gender gap, barriers to reporting sexual harassment and assault, increasing the number of girls and women pursuing STEM careers, and the double-bind that women face in entering the job market and advancing in their careers.

2020-2021 Grant Recipients

Laura Doering
Laura Doering
Strategy

Gendered Financial Inclusion: A Mixed-Method Study of Financial Education in Colombia

Female entrepreneurs often have less access to financial tools and capital than their male counterparts. These gendered disparities are pronounced among low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. Researchers suggest that part of this “financial inclusion gap” stems from women’s reduced knowledge about financial products. Yet interventions to promote financial education have produced mixed results, with many efforts having no effect on reducing the gap. In this study, we propose that gendered interaction patterns in educational settings may influence how women and men engage with and apply financial knowledge. Through a partnership with the Colombian government, we will investigate whether interaction patterns among participants and facilitators in a large-scale financial education program affect financial access and activity. We will collect field experimental and qualitative data to examine whether female entrepreneurs learn more or engage more effectively with financial tools when they receive financial education via different interaction channels.

Camille Hebert
Camille Hebert
Finance

Gender Stereotypes and Entrepreneur Financing

In this project, gender differences will be examined in external equity financing using administrative data on the population of start-ups in France. Female-founded start-ups are 27% less likely to raise external equity including venture capital. However, the gender funding gap reverses in female-dominated sectors, where female entrepreneurs are more likely to raise funding than male entrepreneurs. These observed gender funding gaps are not driven by the composition of founding teams or by differences across individuals regarding education, experience, ex-ante motivations or optimism. Moreover, this project shows that it is conditional on being backed with equity, entrepreneurs outperform in gender-incongruent sectors, suggesting that requirements for funding are higher for entrepreneurs that are minority in gender-incongruent sectors. The evidence is consistent with the existence of context-dependent stereotypes among investors. These findings suggest that equity investors could generate higher returns by investing in minority investors in gender-incongruent sectors - female entrepreneurs in male-dominated sectors and male entrepreneurs in female-dominated sectors.

Rie Kijima
Rie Kijima
Global Affairs

STEM Aspirations and Pathways for Girls in Japan

Countries around the world have struggled to implement education policies to encourage more female students to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). This has resulted in a persistent and sizeable gender gap in academic subjects such as secondary-level mathematics in countries like Japan. This study evaluates the influences of a design thinking workshop with an aim to increase students’ self-efficacy and motivation to pursue STEM. This study seeks to understand how this innovative educational intervention altered the Japanese middle and high school female students’ aspirations and goals related to STEM.

Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Industrial Relations and Human Resources

An Exploration of the Factors Affecting Gender Earnings Gaps in the Absence of Wage Discrimination

Countless studies document a gender earnings gap in labour markets and organizations, but few studies are able to tease apart the factors that lead to the gap. The project explores these factors among a group of emergency department physicians – an interesting setting because many factors proposed to lead to earnings gaps are held constant, such as education, occupation, and the hourly wage rate. While some shifts do receive a premium (e.g., night shifts, on-call), because shifts are equitably assigned, the only factor that could contribute to a gender earnings gap in shift-based compensation is gendered sorting across shifts. Using detailed compensation data, the investigators explore whether shift premiums and shift trading lead to a gender earnings gap in this setting. Findings will be instructive for understanding if the design of compensation systems affects gender earnings gaps in the absence of wage discrimination.

Ryann Manning
Ryann Manning
OBHRM

Trust and Inclusion in Organizational Life

This in-depth, qualitative field study examines a mission-driven service provider. The company’s workforce is substantially more racially and ethnically diverse than their competitors, and their service delivery leadership team is predominantly female, with many of them women of colour. This project will examine the company’s efforts to build an inclusive organization centred on trust and respect, and how those efforts intersect with their innovative service delivery model and approach to their clients.

Radhakrishnan_Frederickson_Toh_Kirby
Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, Megan Frederickson, Soo Min Toh, & Kate Kirby
Management, UTSC, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, IMI, & Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

The Intersectional Effects of Gender and Race on Professor Pay

Institutional efforts toward pay equity have thus far only focused on how to address gender inequities in pay. This project examines how the intersection of race and gender can also result in pay gaps. An inter-disciplinary research team of faculty from management and computational biology will examine this question by adding performance metrics relevant to the academic context to our model of pay. They will examine how professors’ research productivity and students’ evaluations of their teaching affect their pay while controlling for seniority. This project will extend previous research examining the role of teaching and research performance metrics in predicting pay (Lee & Won, 2014) and the role of gender and race in predicting teaching evaluations (Fan et al, 2019), to test a comprehensive model of how race, gender, seniority, teaching evaluations and research productivity predict pay.

Patrick Rooney
Patrick Rooney
PhD, Strategy

The Cases for Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives

Historically, managers have justified diversity and inclusion initiatives by noting that they tend to have a beneficial impact on the firm’s bottom line. This “business case” for diversity in organizations aligns with Institute for Gender and the Economy Annual Report 2019-2020 7 dominant shareholder maximization narratives, but recent research has suggested that this profit-driven focus may distract from considering a broader set of impacts. This project will investigate whether the “cases” that CEOs make for diversity and inclusion initiatives impact the degree to which their managers support these initiatives. Using a survey experiment to examine the impact of “business”, “moral”, “legal”, and other cases, the researchers hope to provide nuanced evidence that informs organizations looking to encourage and sustain diverse and inclusive working environments for the long haul.

2019-2020 Grant Recipients

Daphne Baldassari
Daphné Baldassari
PhD, Strategy

Strength in numbers: How gender group composition influences knowledge contribution

Cultural beliefs about gender affect how individuals behave within organizations, and more specifically how they contribute knowledge and ideas to their team. Organizations in male-typed industries have been actively engaging in initiatives to mitigate the pervasive influence of gender beliefs, yet with mixed success. Using a behavioral approach, the project’s purpose is to consider how gender group composition may help reduce gender beliefs’ impact on the willingness to contribute ideas and thus improve knowledge accumulation in teams.

Spike Lee, Yang Xu
Spike Lee & Yang Xu
Marketing & Computer Science

Effects of Media Outlet on Gender and Social Biases in Artificial Intelligence

We will train machine-learning models on diverse corpora to address four open empirical questions: (1) Do politically left- vs. right-leaning media lead to different kinds of social biases such as sexism, racism, and ageism? (2) Do politically more extreme (either left or right) vs. more moderate media lead to different degrees of social biases? (3) How robust are these biases across algorithm sophistication—or how minimal can the algorithms be while still exhibiting the biases? (4) Do these biases predict judgments and decisions in political and business contexts?

Shannon Liu, Hugh Wu
Shannon Liu & Hugh Wu
Strategy

Gender Differences in Response to Competition in the Workplace: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Throughout the world, in business as well as in government, men are strongly overrepresented in top positions. One explanation is that men are more strongly motivated by competitive incentives. By now, there is some empirical support for such gender differences, often found in the lab. This project exploits a large-scale competitive tournament to examine gender differences in response to competition and the drivers of such in a real workplace. In particular, we focus on a typical service sector in China with both male and female workers and study how such competitive environment influences productivity as well as the decision to quit the job during and after the tournament for workers of both genders.

Julie Moreau, Avni Shah
Julie Moreau & Avni Shah
Political Science & Marketing

Does Marriage Matter?: Understanding the Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on the Gender Pay Gap

Research has shown that married men earn nearly 11 percent more per hour than men who are unmarried, even after controlling for experience, age, and education. This “marriage premium” does not appear for women. While this work has sparked immense interest, it focuses on understanding cisgender men and women in heterosexual partnerships. Do lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender and queer people in same-sex marriages experience these differences in wages, productivity and expanded economic social networks compared to either their unmarried or heterosexual counterparts? Using data collected from the 2016 and 2020 Collaborative Multi-Racial Post-Election Survey (CMPS), which oversamples people of color, we will apply an intersectional lens to uncover exactly how any marriage premium operates for LGBTQ people. Our findings will contribute to understanding the roots of a very old problem in the context of newly expanded LGBTQ rights.

Rachel Ruttan, Katrina Fincher
Rachel Ruttan & Katrina Fincher
OBHRM & Psychology

She Said “Me, Too,” He Said “Not Me:” Situational Ambiguity and Sexual Harassment

Following the #MeToo movement, sexual harassment cases have been salient in the public eye. This has led to increased attention to mandatory and uniform HR training programs that may reduce harassment behaviors and clinical approaches that examine the characteristics of repeat perpetrators (“serial predator” models). However, given the wide spread nature of the phenomena, the problem likely extends beyond serial harassers. Here, we build upon a perspective that explains how even “good people” can routinely cross ethical boundaries: the situationist approach. Specifically, we propose that situations that create ambiguity around individuals’ actions will increase the likelihood of sexual harassment.

Avni Shah, Joseph Williams, Cendri Hutcherson & Matthew Osborne
Marketing, Computer Science, Psychology & Marketing

Developing Helpful Habits: Designing Dynamic Interventions to Promote Financial Inclusion Among Women and People of Colour in Financial Savings Domains

Previous work has increased people’s knowledge of how to establish better savings habits and have developed various interventions to induce a change in behavior. However, these interventions typically only induce short-term behavior change, typically at a single decision point in time (e.g., choosing not to spend money on an indulgence, choosing to put money into a savings account). Moreover, many of these programs and interventions have ignored the unique struggles faced by women and other vulnerable and marginalized groups. Our research seeks to address this fundamental gap in the literature: Which types of interventions are effective at improving behavior over the long-term for a broader range of individuals (e.g., women, people of colour, LGBTQ communities, and those who have intersectional identities)? We have assembled an interdisciplinary team, combining researchers from consumer behavior, computer science, econometrics, and social neuroscience in order to design a more inclusive set of interventions that can foster motivation not only for the short-term but in ways that can have sustained success in the long-term as well.

András Tilcsik
András Tilcsik
Strategy

A Closer Look or a Cursory Glance? Systematic Search Bias in Statistical Discrimination

In modern labor markets, employers, have access to many sources of fine-grained information about job seekers. But hiring managers still often rely on gender and racial stereotypes when making employment decisions. To address this puzzle, this research tests the hypothesis that hiring managers tend to devote more time and effort to finding individuating information about in-group applicants than out-group applicants; for example, white male hiring managers spend more time searching for additional information about white male job seekers than about female and non-white candidates. The results of this research will have potential implications for understanding and eliminating the causes of labor market discrimination.

2018-2019 Grant Recipients

Baker, Halberstam, Kroft, Mas, Messacar
Michael Baker, Yosh Halberstam, Kory Kroft, Alexandre Mas, & Derek Messacar
Department of Economics

Salary disclosure laws and the gender wage gap

The gender wage gap in Canada has narrowed over time, but it remains significant. One hypothesis is that the pay gap persists because it is hidden. Building on this hypothesis, policy makers in many countries, including Canada, the US, the UK, and Norway, have proposed various pay disclosure requirements. The objective of this project is to test this hypothesis using worker-level data from Statistic Canada spanning over 40 years. We plan to exploit provincial variation in pay disclosure laws, and the timing of their implementation, to estimate the impact of such salary disclosure laws on the gender wage gap.
Read their latest working paper.
Joyce, Sonia, Nica
Joyce He, Sonia Kang, & Nico Lacetera
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM, & OBHRM

Choice architecture and women’s leadership ascension

In most organizations, promotion into leadership typically requires self-nomination via an application. However, past research clearly suggests that this process could put women at a disadvantage. Approaching this problem from a behavioral science perspective, we propose to apply well-established findings on "choice architecture" to the choice of applying for leadership positions. We hypothesize that using the "opt-out" choice framework will take the onus off of women (or people of any gender) to "lean in" to apply and compete.
Read their latest working paper.
Moorthy, Pogacar, and Xu
Sridhar Moorthy, Ruth Pogacar, & Yang Xu
Marketing

Naming Brand Names: Is there a gender strategy?

When naming humans, clear gender conventions exist. In turn, people associate particular genders with particular characteristics. Do these stereotypes also apply to brand names? For example, is Nike (which is analogous to Mike) a "masculine brand"? If so, is that a desirable association to have? The broader question is whether-or-not firms have a gender strategy when naming brands. If so, what are they trying to accomplish when they make these choices? With this research, we seek to answer these questions.

Read their latest working paper.
Hasley, Khapko, Ornthanalai
Michael Hasler, Mariana Khapko, & Chayawat Ornthanalai
Finance

Gender differences in labour income dynamics as drivers of financial decision making

Labour income risk has been increasingly recognized as an important factor that affects individuals' decision-making processes. Given the structural differences in labour market access between men and women, and their constraints, we want to investigate whether such differences lead women and men to make different portfolio allocation choices; shifting their investments between "risky" and "non-risky" assets during periods of earnings shocks.

Wally Smieliauskas, Jessie Zhu
Wally Smieliauskas & Jessie Zhu
Accounting

An analysis of the organizational and economic consequences of gender equity policies

Sexual harassment is likely correlated to firm culture and other gender issues, such as gender pay inequities and LGBQT+ friendliness. This culture may finally be changing given the recent emergence of high profile harassment cases that led to the #MeToo movement; Which may act as an important catalyst of change throughout business and society. Thus, we aim to examine and document how the #MeToo movement changes the extent to which firms' gender policies are correlated with creativity, profitability, market valuation, sustainability, etc.

Jing and Geoffrey
Jing Hu & Geoffrey Leonardelli
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM & psychology

Think-Leader-Think-Women: People turn to women leaders for teams with hidden goals

For this research, we propose that women are more likely than men to emerge as leaders, i.e., when teams must uncover hidden goals. Such goals require optimizing the team's capability given environmental constraints, and are thus goals we think that women will be more effective at identifying. Supporting this contention, the goal pursuit literature indicates that women are more likely to optimize goals by controlling and accommodating the environment, whereas men tend to rely on solely controlling the environment. Thus, we propose that women more than men will identify hidden goals, align the team behind such goals, and thus emerge as leaders among their team's members.

Hani Mansour, Pamela Medina Quispe, & Andrea Velasquez
Hani Mansour, Pamela Medina Quispe, & Andrea Velasquez
Department of Economics

The Labor Market Impacts of Import Competition on Female Workers: Evidence from Peru

Trade liberalization affects labor market outcomes for male and female workers. In this study, we examine the gender-specific effects of exposure to import competition in Peru after China's accession to the WTO. By considering employment substitution within and across industries and in local labor markets, we aim to quantify the impact of import competition on labor market outcomes of females, as well as the main underlying channels. The outcomes of the study would inform policy makers about potential policies to mitigate the effects of globalization on the economic and social status of women - particularly in developing and low-income countries.

Nadia Caidi, Saadia Muzaffar
Nadia Caidi & Saadia Muzaffar
Faculty of Information (iSchool), Founder of TechGirls

Compounding Losses: Labour struggles of immigrant women in STEM

Among university graduates in Canada aged 25 to 34, immigrant women are twice as likely to have a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) degree as Canadian-born women (23% versus 13%). Yet, immigrant women face some of the highest levels of labour market challenges in Canada across indicators, including: unemployment rate, wage gap, part-time employment, and low-income rate. We seek to document the complex gendered "work-finding" hurdles for immigrant women in STEM fields in order to begin examining the Loss on Investment (LOI) being absorbed by the Canadian economy due to this untapped talent.

2017-2018 Grant Recipients

Mike Simutin
Mikhail Simutin
Finance

Impact on the gender pay gap of CEO exposure to gender imbalance during formative years

This project will explore the impact of formative years of CEOs on the gender gap in corporate offices that they manage. Specifically, it will assess the role of demographic characteristics of the area where the CEO grew up, his or her education and family background on the gender pay gap among corporate officers, capital allocation to and promotions of male and female managers, and other aspects of differential treatment of men and women.
Read Mikhail's working paper.
Learn more about Mikhail's research inspiration and design.
Watch Mikhail discuss his research at the Rotman Magazine event, "Art of Change."
Andras Tilcsik
András Tilcsik
Strategy

Scaling Up Gender Equality (how different ratings scales shape outcomes by gender)

Winner, American Sociological Association Granovetter Award for best article in economic sociology.

This project explores how different rating scales (e.g., 1 to 5 versus 1 to 10) magnify or attenuate differences in scores given to men and women in evaluations. By revealing which types of scales can reduce gender bias, our research has the potential to illuminate concrete interventions to reduce bias and advance women’s careers.
Read András' paper.
Learn more about András' research in this article for Harvard Business Review.
Read GATE's research brief on András' paper.
Hadiya Roderique
Hadiya Roderique
PhD, OBHRM

Race, Gender and Agency in Leadership: An Examination of Intersectional Identities and Agentic Penalties

This research project will examine the effect of different agentic, leadership behaviors on evaluations of Black and White women leaders. I predict that unlike their White counterparts, Black women will be protected from agentic penalties where the described behavior aligns with stereotypes associated with their race and gender.
Daehyun Kim
Accounting

Adding More Women to Corporate Boards: The Impact on Boards’ Advisory Effectiveness

We ask whether adding more women directors to corporate boards affects the boards’ advisory effectiveness, by measuring women directors’ incremental expertise contribution. By providing empirical evidence on the current, world-wide debate on female director quotas, this study could yield crucial policy implications.
Avni Shah and Amber Holden
Avni Shah & Amber Holden
Marketing & PhD, OBHRM

Playing the Inside Game versus the Outside Offer Game: How Men and Women Respond to Workplace Successes and Failures May Drive the Gender Pay Gap

It is well known that there is a gender pay gap; women receive less pay than men for doing the same work in the same positions. We propose that this discrepancy may be partially driven by differences in the way women and men respond to successes and failures in the workplace. More specifically, we propose that women may respond to losing out on a promotion by increasing their commitment inside the workplace (i.e., increasing organizational citizenship behaviours) while men, in contrast, may be more likely to increase their utility to the organization by searching for a higher paying outside offer (subsequently leading the employer to match the offer, creating this pay gap).
Sonia-Kang-Chong-He
Sonia Kang & Chong He
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM

Shifting Stereotypes to Improve Leadership Aspiration and Self‐Efficacy among Female Leaders

In this project, we aim to develop a novel and impactful intervention for reducing barriers to leadership among women in a way that minimizes backlash and negative spillover effects. By changing the framing of the leadership role to include more traditionally feminine attributes, we hope to increase the perceived compatibility between the female gender role and the leader role and to increase leadership aspiration and leadership self‐efficacy among women.
Nicole Cohen
Nicole Cohen
School of Information, U of T
Dynamics of Gender and Race in Canadian Journalism Industries is an interview-based project that investigates the challenges and opportunities facing women and women of colour in the expanding digital journalism industry, with an aim to increase meaningful and equitable participation of women and women of colour in journalism in Canada.
Laura Derksen
Laura Derksen
Strategy

Barriers to Reporting Sexual Harassment and Assault

Sexual harassment and assault are under reported in academic and professional environments, and organizations often lack evidence-based reporting policy. We use a randomized experiment, among university students, to test innovative reporting tools that make reporting easier and increase credibility by matching students who report the same offender; these tools are designed to encourage reporting and deter perpetrators.
Anne Bowers
Anne Bowers
Strategy

Gender and Awards in Financial Industries

For many professions, especially in finance, career progression and promotion relies heavily on awards and public recognition. Our project examines the role of gender in receiving awards, particularly the impact of pioneering women who receive awards as well as the impact of gender/role typical behavior.

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To support rigorous research, GATE offers annual research grants to qualified applicants.

Since its launch in 2016, GATE has funded 61 researchers investigating topics such as the impact of CEO characteristics on the corporate gender gap, barriers to reporting sexual harassment and assault, increasing the number of girls and women pursuing STEM careers, and the double-bind that women face in entering the job market and advancing in their careers.

2020-2021 Grant Recipients

Laura Doering
Laura Doering
Strategy

Gendered Financial Inclusion: A Mixed-Method Study of Financial Education in Colombia

Female entrepreneurs often have less access to financial tools and capital than their male counterparts. These gendered disparities are pronounced among low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. Researchers suggest that part of this “financial inclusion gap” stems from women’s reduced knowledge about financial products. Yet interventions to promote financial education have produced mixed results, with many efforts having no effect on reducing the gap. In this study, we propose that gendered interaction patterns in educational settings may influence how women and men engage with and apply financial knowledge. Through a partnership with the Colombian government, we will investigate whether interaction patterns among participants and facilitators in a large-scale financial education program affect financial access and activity. We will collect field experimental and qualitative data to examine whether female entrepreneurs learn more or engage more effectively with financial tools when they receive financial education via different interaction channels.

Camille Hebert
Camille Hebert
Finance

Gender Stereotypes and Entrepreneur Financing

In this project, gender differences will be examined in external equity financing using administrative data on the population of start-ups in France. Female-founded start-ups are 27% less likely to raise external equity including venture capital. However, the gender funding gap reverses in female-dominated sectors, where female entrepreneurs are more likely to raise funding than male entrepreneurs. These observed gender funding gaps are not driven by the composition of founding teams or by differences across individuals regarding education, experience, ex-ante motivations or optimism. Moreover, this project shows that it is conditional on being backed with equity, entrepreneurs outperform in gender-incongruent sectors, suggesting that requirements for funding are higher for entrepreneurs that are minority in gender-incongruent sectors. The evidence is consistent with the existence of context-dependent stereotypes among investors. These findings suggest that equity investors could generate higher returns by investing in minority investors in gender-incongruent sectors - female entrepreneurs in male-dominated sectors and male entrepreneurs in female-dominated sectors.

Rie Kijima
Rie Kijima
Global Affairs

STEM Aspirations and Pathways for Girls in Japan

Countries around the world have struggled to implement education policies to encourage more female students to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). This has resulted in a persistent and sizeable gender gap in academic subjects such as secondary-level mathematics in countries like Japan. This study evaluates the influences of a design thinking workshop with an aim to increase students’ self-efficacy and motivation to pursue STEM. This study seeks to understand how this innovative educational intervention altered the Japanese middle and high school female students’ aspirations and goals related to STEM.

Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Dionne Pohler & Shannon Potter
Industrial Relations and Human Resources

An Exploration of the Factors Affecting Gender Earnings Gaps in the Absence of Wage Discrimination

Countless studies document a gender earnings gap in labour markets and organizations, but few studies are able to tease apart the factors that lead to the gap. The project explores these factors among a group of emergency department physicians – an interesting setting because many factors proposed to lead to earnings gaps are held constant, such as education, occupation, and the hourly wage rate. While some shifts do receive a premium (e.g., night shifts, on-call), because shifts are equitably assigned, the only factor that could contribute to a gender earnings gap in shift-based compensation is gendered sorting across shifts. Using detailed compensation data, the investigators explore whether shift premiums and shift trading lead to a gender earnings gap in this setting. Findings will be instructive for understanding if the design of compensation systems affects gender earnings gaps in the absence of wage discrimination.

Ryann Manning
Ryann Manning
OBHRM

Trust and Inclusion in Organizational Life

This in-depth, qualitative field study examines a mission-driven service provider. The company’s workforce is substantially more racially and ethnically diverse than their competitors, and their service delivery leadership team is predominantly female, with many of them women of colour. This project will examine the company’s efforts to build an inclusive organization centred on trust and respect, and how those efforts intersect with their innovative service delivery model and approach to their clients.

Radhakrishnan_Frederickson_Toh_Kirby
Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, Megan Frederickson, Soo Min Toh, & Kate Kirby
Management, UTSC, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, IMI, & Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

The Intersectional Effects of Gender and Race on Professor Pay

Institutional efforts toward pay equity have thus far only focused on how to address gender inequities in pay. This project examines how the intersection of race and gender can also result in pay gaps. An inter-disciplinary research team of faculty from management and computational biology will examine this question by adding performance metrics relevant to the academic context to our model of pay. They will examine how professors’ research productivity and students’ evaluations of their teaching affect their pay while controlling for seniority. This project will extend previous research examining the role of teaching and research performance metrics in predicting pay (Lee & Won, 2014) and the role of gender and race in predicting teaching evaluations (Fan et al, 2019), to test a comprehensive model of how race, gender, seniority, teaching evaluations and research productivity predict pay.

Patrick Rooney
Patrick Rooney
PhD, Strategy

The Cases for Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives

Historically, managers have justified diversity and inclusion initiatives by noting that they tend to have a beneficial impact on the firm’s bottom line. This “business case” for diversity in organizations aligns with Institute for Gender and the Economy Annual Report 2019-2020 7 dominant shareholder maximization narratives, but recent research has suggested that this profit-driven focus may distract from considering a broader set of impacts. This project will investigate whether the “cases” that CEOs make for diversity and inclusion initiatives impact the degree to which their managers support these initiatives. Using a survey experiment to examine the impact of “business”, “moral”, “legal”, and other cases, the researchers hope to provide nuanced evidence that informs organizations looking to encourage and sustain diverse and inclusive working environments for the long haul.

2019-2020 Grant Recipients

Daphne Baldassari
Daphné Baldassari
PhD, Strategy

Strength in numbers: How gender group composition influences knowledge contribution

Cultural beliefs about gender affect how individuals behave within organizations, and more specifically how they contribute knowledge and ideas to their team. Organizations in male-typed industries have been actively engaging in initiatives to mitigate the pervasive influence of gender beliefs, yet with mixed success. Using a behavioral approach, the project’s purpose is to consider how gender group composition may help reduce gender beliefs’ impact on the willingness to contribute ideas and thus improve knowledge accumulation in teams.

Spike Lee, Yang Xu
Spike Lee & Yang Xu
Marketing & Computer Science

Effects of Media Outlet on Gender and Social Biases in Artificial Intelligence

We will train machine-learning models on diverse corpora to address four open empirical questions: (1) Do politically left- vs. right-leaning media lead to different kinds of social biases such as sexism, racism, and ageism? (2) Do politically more extreme (either left or right) vs. more moderate media lead to different degrees of social biases? (3) How robust are these biases across algorithm sophistication—or how minimal can the algorithms be while still exhibiting the biases? (4) Do these biases predict judgments and decisions in political and business contexts?

Shannon Liu, Hugh Wu
Shannon Liu & Hugh Wu
Strategy

Gender Differences in Response to Competition in the Workplace: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

Throughout the world, in business as well as in government, men are strongly overrepresented in top positions. One explanation is that men are more strongly motivated by competitive incentives. By now, there is some empirical support for such gender differences, often found in the lab. This project exploits a large-scale competitive tournament to examine gender differences in response to competition and the drivers of such in a real workplace. In particular, we focus on a typical service sector in China with both male and female workers and study how such competitive environment influences productivity as well as the decision to quit the job during and after the tournament for workers of both genders.

Julie Moreau, Avni Shah
Julie Moreau & Avni Shah
Political Science & Marketing

Does Marriage Matter?: Understanding the Impact of Same-Sex Marriage on the Gender Pay Gap

Research has shown that married men earn nearly 11 percent more per hour than men who are unmarried, even after controlling for experience, age, and education. This “marriage premium” does not appear for women. While this work has sparked immense interest, it focuses on understanding cisgender men and women in heterosexual partnerships. Do lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender and queer people in same-sex marriages experience these differences in wages, productivity and expanded economic social networks compared to either their unmarried or heterosexual counterparts? Using data collected from the 2016 and 2020 Collaborative Multi-Racial Post-Election Survey (CMPS), which oversamples people of color, we will apply an intersectional lens to uncover exactly how any marriage premium operates for LGBTQ people. Our findings will contribute to understanding the roots of a very old problem in the context of newly expanded LGBTQ rights.

Rachel Ruttan, Katrina Fincher
Rachel Ruttan & Katrina Fincher
OBHRM & Psychology

She Said “Me, Too,” He Said “Not Me:” Situational Ambiguity and Sexual Harassment

Following the #MeToo movement, sexual harassment cases have been salient in the public eye. This has led to increased attention to mandatory and uniform HR training programs that may reduce harassment behaviors and clinical approaches that examine the characteristics of repeat perpetrators (“serial predator” models). However, given the wide spread nature of the phenomena, the problem likely extends beyond serial harassers. Here, we build upon a perspective that explains how even “good people” can routinely cross ethical boundaries: the situationist approach. Specifically, we propose that situations that create ambiguity around individuals’ actions will increase the likelihood of sexual harassment.

Avni Shah, Joseph Williams, Cendri Hutcherson & Matthew Osborne
Marketing, Computer Science, Psychology & Marketing

Developing Helpful Habits: Designing Dynamic Interventions to Promote Financial Inclusion Among Women and People of Colour in Financial Savings Domains

Previous work has increased people’s knowledge of how to establish better savings habits and have developed various interventions to induce a change in behavior. However, these interventions typically only induce short-term behavior change, typically at a single decision point in time (e.g., choosing not to spend money on an indulgence, choosing to put money into a savings account). Moreover, many of these programs and interventions have ignored the unique struggles faced by women and other vulnerable and marginalized groups. Our research seeks to address this fundamental gap in the literature: Which types of interventions are effective at improving behavior over the long-term for a broader range of individuals (e.g., women, people of colour, LGBTQ communities, and those who have intersectional identities)? We have assembled an interdisciplinary team, combining researchers from consumer behavior, computer science, econometrics, and social neuroscience in order to design a more inclusive set of interventions that can foster motivation not only for the short-term but in ways that can have sustained success in the long-term as well.

András Tilcsik
András Tilcsik
Strategy

A Closer Look or a Cursory Glance? Systematic Search Bias in Statistical Discrimination

In modern labor markets, employers, have access to many sources of fine-grained information about job seekers. But hiring managers still often rely on gender and racial stereotypes when making employment decisions. To address this puzzle, this research tests the hypothesis that hiring managers tend to devote more time and effort to finding individuating information about in-group applicants than out-group applicants; for example, white male hiring managers spend more time searching for additional information about white male job seekers than about female and non-white candidates. The results of this research will have potential implications for understanding and eliminating the causes of labor market discrimination.

2018-2019 Grant Recipients

Baker, Halberstam, Kroft, Mas, Messacar
Michael Baker, Yosh Halberstam, Kory Kroft, Alexandre Mas, & Derek Messacar
Department of Economics

Salary disclosure laws and the gender wage gap

The gender wage gap in Canada has narrowed over time, but it remains significant. One hypothesis is that the pay gap persists because it is hidden. Building on this hypothesis, policy makers in many countries, including Canada, the US, the UK, and Norway, have proposed various pay disclosure requirements. The objective of this project is to test this hypothesis using worker-level data from Statistic Canada spanning over 40 years. We plan to exploit provincial variation in pay disclosure laws, and the timing of their implementation, to estimate the impact of such salary disclosure laws on the gender wage gap.
Read their latest working paper.
Nadia Caidi, Saadia Muzaffar
Nadia Caidi & Saadia Muzaffar
Faculty of Information (iSchool), Founder of TechGirls

Compounding Losses: Labour struggles of immigrant women in STEM

Among university graduates in Canada aged 25 to 34, immigrant women are twice as likely to have a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) degree as Canadian-born women (23% versus 13%). Yet, immigrant women face some of the highest levels of labour market challenges in Canada across indicators, including: unemployment rate, wage gap, part-time employment, and low-income rate. We seek to document the complex gendered "work-finding" hurdles for immigrant women in STEM fields in order to begin examining the Loss on Investment (LOI) being absorbed by the Canadian economy due to this untapped talent.

Hasley, Khapko, Ornthanalai
Michael Hasler, Mariana Khapko, & Chayawat Ornthanalai
Finance

Gender differences in labour income dynamics as drivers of financial decision making

Labour income risk has been increasingly recognized as an important factor that affects individuals' decision-making processes. Given the structural differences in labour market access between men and women, and their constraints, we want to investigate whether such differences lead women and men to make different portfolio allocation choices; shifting their investments between "risky" and "non-risky" assets during periods of earnings shocks.

Joyce, Sonia, Nica
Joyce He, Sonia Kang, & Nico Lacetera
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM, & OBHRM

Choice architecture and women’s leadership ascension

In most organizations, promotion into leadership typically requires self-nomination via an application. However, past research clearly suggests that this process could put women at a disadvantage. Approaching this problem from a behavioral science perspective, we propose to apply well-established findings on "choice architecture" to the choice of applying for leadership positions. We hypothesize that using the "opt-out" choice framework will take the onus off of women (or people of any gender) to "lean in" to apply and compete.
Read their latest working paper.
Jing and Geoffrey
Jing Hu & Geoffrey Leonardelli
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM & psychology

Think-Leader-Think-Women: People turn to women leaders for teams with hidden goals

For this research, we propose that women are more likely than men to emerge as leaders, i.e., when teams must uncover hidden goals. Such goals require optimizing the team's capability given environmental constraints, and are thus goals we think that women will be more effective at identifying. Supporting this contention, the goal pursuit literature indicates that women are more likely to optimize goals by controlling and accommodating the environment, whereas men tend to rely on solely controlling the environment. Thus, we propose that women more than men will identify hidden goals, align the team behind such goals, and thus emerge as leaders among their team's members.

Hani Mansour, Pamela Medina Quispe, & Andrea Velasquez
Hani Mansour, Pamela Medina Quispe, & Andrea Velasquez
Department of Economics

The Labor Market Impacts of Import Competition on Female Workers: Evidence from Peru

Trade liberalization affects labor market outcomes for male and female workers. In this study, we examine the gender-specific effects of exposure to import competition in Peru after China's accession to the WTO. By considering employment substitution within and across industries and in local labor markets, we aim to quantify the impact of import competition on labor market outcomes of females, as well as the main underlying channels. The outcomes of the study would inform policy makers about potential policies to mitigate the effects of globalization on the economic and social status of women - particularly in developing and low-income countries.

Moorthy, Pogacar, and Xu
Sridhar Moorthy, Ruth Pogacar, & Yang Xu
Marketing

Naming Brand Names: Is there a gender strategy?

When naming humans, clear gender conventions exist. In turn, people associate particular genders with particular characteristics. Do these stereotypes also apply to brand names? For example, is Nike (which is analogous to Mike) a "masculine brand"? If so, is that a desirable association to have? The broader question is whether-or-not firms have a gender strategy when naming brands. If so, what are they trying to accomplish when they make these choices? With this research, we seek to answer these questions.

Read their latest working paper.
Wally Smieliauskas, Jessie Zhu
Wally Smieliauskas & Jessie Zhu
Accounting

An analysis of the organizational and economic consequences of gender equity policies

Sexual harassment is likely correlated to firm culture and other gender issues, such as gender pay inequities and LGBQT+ friendliness. This culture may finally be changing given the recent emergence of high profile harassment cases that led to the #MeToo movement; Which may act as an important catalyst of change throughout business and society. Thus, we aim to examine and document how the #MeToo movement changes the extent to which firms' gender policies are correlated with creativity, profitability, market valuation, sustainability, etc.

2017-2018 Grant Recipients

Mike Simutin
Mikhail Simutin
Finance

Impact on the gender pay gap of CEO exposure to gender imbalance during formative years

This project will explore the impact of formative years of CEOs on the gender gap in corporate offices that they manage. Specifically, it will assess the role of demographic characteristics of the area where the CEO grew up, his or her education and family background on the gender pay gap among corporate officers, capital allocation to and promotions of male and female managers, and other aspects of differential treatment of men and women.
Read Mikhail's working paper.
Learn more about Mikhail's research inspiration and design.
Watch Mikhail discuss his research at the Rotman Magazine event, "Art of Change."
Andras Tilcsik
András Tilcsik
Strategy

Scaling Up Gender Equality (how different ratings scales shape outcomes by gender)

Winner, American Sociological Association Granovetter Award for best article in economic sociology.

This project explores how different rating scales (e.g., 1 to 5 versus 1 to 10) magnify or attenuate differences in scores given to men and women in evaluations. By revealing which types of scales can reduce gender bias, our research has the potential to illuminate concrete interventions to reduce bias and advance women’s careers.
Read András' paper.
Learn more about András' research in this article for Harvard Business Review.
Read GATE's research brief on András' paper.
Hadiya Roderique
Hadiya Roderique
PhD, OBHRM

Race, Gender and Agency in Leadership: An Examination of Intersectional Identities and Agentic Penalties

This research project will examine the effect of different agentic, leadership behaviors on evaluations of Black and White women leaders. I predict that unlike their White counterparts, Black women will be protected from agentic penalties where the described behavior aligns with stereotypes associated with their race and gender.
Daehyun Kim
Accounting

Adding More Women to Corporate Boards: The Impact on Boards’ Advisory Effectiveness

We ask whether adding more women directors to corporate boards affects the boards’ advisory effectiveness, by measuring women directors’ incremental expertise contribution. By providing empirical evidence on the current, world-wide debate on female director quotas, this study could yield crucial policy implications.
Avni Shah and Amber Holden
Avni Shah & Amber Holden
Marketing & PhD, OBHRM

Playing the Inside Game versus the Outside Offer Game: How Men and Women Respond to Workplace Successes and Failures May Drive the Gender Pay Gap

It is well known that there is a gender pay gap; women receive less pay than men for doing the same work in the same positions. We propose that this discrepancy may be partially driven by differences in the way women and men respond to successes and failures in the workplace. More specifically, we propose that women may respond to losing out on a promotion by increasing their commitment inside the workplace (i.e., increasing organizational citizenship behaviours) while men, in contrast, may be more likely to increase their utility to the organization by searching for a higher paying outside offer (subsequently leading the employer to match the offer, creating this pay gap).
Sonia-Kang-Chong-He
Sonia Kang & Chong He
OBHRM & PhD, OBHRM

Shifting Stereotypes to Improve Leadership Aspiration and Self‐Efficacy among Female Leaders

In this project, we aim to develop a novel and impactful intervention for reducing barriers to leadership among women in a way that minimizes backlash and negative spillover effects. By changing the framing of the leadership role to include more traditionally feminine attributes, we hope to increase the perceived compatibility between the female gender role and the leader role and to increase leadership aspiration and leadership self‐efficacy among women.
Nicole Cohen
Nicole Cohen
School of Information, U of T
Dynamics of Gender and Race in Canadian Journalism Industries is an interview-based project that investigates the challenges and opportunities facing women and women of colour in the expanding digital journalism industry, with an aim to increase meaningful and equitable participation of women and women of colour in journalism in Canada.
Laura Derksen
Laura Derksen
Strategy

Barriers to Reporting Sexual Harassment and Assault

Sexual harassment and assault are under reported in academic and professional environments, and organizations often lack evidence-based reporting policy. We use a randomized experiment, among university students, to test innovative reporting tools that make reporting easier and increase credibility by matching students who report the same offender; these tools are designed to encourage reporting and deter perpetrators.
Anne Bowers
Anne Bowers
Strategy

Gender and Awards in Financial Industries

For many professions, especially in finance, career progression and promotion relies heavily on awards and public recognition. Our project examines the role of gender in receiving awards, particularly the impact of pioneering women who receive awards as well as the impact of gender/role typical behavior.

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